An empirical study on production and returns to scale of Paddy Crop in Jammu and Kashmir with special reference to district Anantnag

Tajamul Khurshid, SOE, D.A.V.VIndore


Rice culture and consumption in Kashmir has been in vogue since the drainage of water from Satisar by Kashyap Reshi. Among the chief crops that ripen in autumn in Kashmir, rice (Oryza Sativa) (dhaney/shali in Kashmir) has been extensively grown in irrigated lands since time immemorial for food and fodder purposes.  Rice remained a crop of prime importance in Kashmir; it alone contributes more than 74 percent of the total rice produced in the state.It is a kharif crop and is sown in May-June and harvested in autumn. It is primarily grown in plain areas.The rice crop grown mostly in Kashmir region also known as ‘Cultivators Paradise’.Rice is grown in varied soil conditions but deep clayey and loamy soil, which turn in to soft mud when puddle and develop cracks on drying, provides the ideal condition and rainfall between 150-300 cm is suitable for its growth. Cultivation of rice requires hot and moist climate, day temperature of 20-330C and night temperature of 15-200C are suitable for optimum growth and higher yield.Rice production in the state is predominantly a mono cropped activity with a very high consumption and most important staple food than other states of India.Anantnag, Jammu, Baramulla and Pulwama are the major paddy districts of the State.These four districts together produces about 65.39 percent of total paddy production and occupies about 59.87 percent of total area under paddy in the state. Anantnag and Pulwama are the only districts in Jammu and Kashmir whose production is large as compared to remaining districts of the state. Anantnag is also called the rice bowl of the state, and it is equally rich in landscape of lush green meadows asthe district is provided with rich natural and water resource management, apart from this the Anantnag district has got the large area under the cultivation of rice, 40375 hectares of land is under cultivation of rice, and the production of rice in the district is 105726 tonnes with a productivity of 2.62t/ha. The area under the rice is distributed by both the regions in which about 40 percent of area is with Jammu division while as 60 percent of the area is with Kashmir division. According to the Census 1994-95, the Kashmir region accounted for 61 per cent of total cultivable land under rice with the highest yield of 26.13 q/ha as compared to approximately 15.96 q/ha in the Jammu region.

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