Mechanisms for Controlling the Synthesis of Lipids – Review

Augustine Ikhueoya Airaodion, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Abiodun Paul Oloruntoba, Aanu Paul Agunbiade, Edith Oloseuan Airaodion, Ifeoma Pearl Mokelu, Stella Chinonye Ekeh

Abstract


Lipids are synthesized, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, “lipidomics,” in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biochemistry has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biochemistry. This review is aimed at studying the mechanisms involved in the regulation of lipids. These mechanisms can either be short term or long term. When the concentration of a particular lipid is high in the body, it inhibits the rate–limiting enzyme involves in its synthesis in a feedback mechanism thereby limiting its rate of synthesis. The synthesis of lipids can also be controlled through a negative feed-back mechanism. This is situation where the product when in a certain level, decreases the activities of the enzymes involved in its synthesis especially the rate–limiting enzymes. Diet also plays a major role in this regulation. When a diet is rich in a certain lipid, its synthesis is inhibited. Several hormones have been reported to regulate the synthesis of lipids. The transcription of the rate–limiting enzyme also plays a role in the regulation of the synthesis of lipids. This mechanism involves several transcriptional factors. The synthesis of lipids is well coordinated and regulated.

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